Parent Grandparent Great Grandparent 2nd Great Grandparent 3rd Great Grandparent
Main Person Brother or Sister Aunt or Uncle Grand Uncle or Aunt Great Grand Uncle or Aunt 2nd Great Grand Uncle or Aunt
Niece or Nephew 1st Cousin 1st Cousin Once Removed 1st Cousin Twice Removed 1st Cousin 3 Times Removed
Grand Niece or Nephew 1st Cousin Once Removed 2nd Cousin 2nd Cousin Once Removed 2nd Cousin Twice Removed
Great Grand Niece or Nephew 1st Cousin Twice Removed 2nd Cousin Once Removed 3rd Cousin 3rd Cousin Once Removed
2nd Great Grand Niece or Nephew 1st Cousin 3 Times Removed 2nd Cousin Twice Removed 3rd Cousin Once Removed 4th Cousin

Relationship Type Calculator

Use this calculator to name the relationship between two people who share a common ancestor.

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DNA Blog

Family Tree DNA transfers

FamilyTree DNA now accepting Ancestry v2 and 23andMe v4 transfers

If you’re like many adoptees, foundlings, and genetic genealogists, you’ve likely been impatiently awaiting FamilyTree DNA to update their system to include newer autosomal transfers from AncestryDNA (v2 chip) and 23andMe (v4 chip). The wait is finally over! After months of waiting, all versions of AncestryDNA autosomal tests (v1 and v2) and newer versions of 23andMe […]

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DNA Icons

I created these images to make mirror trees on Ancestry more manageable. The icons visually help show known paths, ancestors, possible ancestors, and matches. The X icon is especially useful if a branch is a known dead-end. Tree tip: I tend to use a match’s username as first name, Ancestry as their last name, and cMs/segments […]

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Epigenetics Has Become Dangerously Fashionable

For the past few years, social scientists have been buzzing over a particular topic in molecular biology—gene regulation. The hype has been building steam for some time, but recently, it rocketed to the forefront of public discussion due to a widely circulated piece in the New Yorker.

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